An understood methodology gives a frame to solving a problem or achieve a goal. 

We use some efficient methods for various needs.

For example, to get requirements or needs from Business actors, we will use Metaplan for brainstorming workshops.

We will choose a risk-based approach across the TMap methodology in Testing projects.

To keep a project alive, we use the Taskboard that comes from Agile/Scrum methodologies. Also, we keep a daily stand-up meeting (5 minutes, stand up, what have you done yesterday?, what will you do today?, have you met issues?).

In Continuous Improvement projects, "PDCA" - the four-step iterative method - is a very good way to obtain results.

Beyond methodologies, we also use standards - such as UML - that are often a good way to communicate effectively and accurately... 
...and to avoid this :